2019 Issue No. 31 /December
Table of Contents
1. Nicolae PĂUN and Eyal BUVLSKI: DECISION MAKING IN CENTRAL AFRICA – THE PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM IN LIGHT OF THE CHANGING ECONOMY
This paper aims to characterize the considerations of decision makers in Central African states regarding investment in the health sector. The findings rely on data collected in the research, “intercultural economic diplomacy and cross-cultural encounters in Central Africa after the discovery of natural resources- the case of Equatorial Guinea,” which is still in process. The health system in Central Africa is very complex and challenging, and there are extensive activities of international factors. In recent decades many Central African states have undergone significant economic changes as a result of the discovery of natural resources or other economic developments, but despite the awareness of decision-makers to health issues, the average investment as a percentage of GDP is one of the world’s lowest. The findings demonstrate that although health system is among the first to benefit from the fruits of an economic change, local decision makers seems to invest in impressive medical institutions, sometimes at the expense of increasing public investment in health per se. The paper argues that if decision-makers cease to view the investment in the public health system as an opportunity for political and image gains, they will probably neglect their tendency to establish impressive medical institutions or to implement projects that are well publicized but will invest in state budgets devoted to health.
- Keywords: Central Africa, decision making, public health system.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2019.31.01
2. Werner MÜLLER-PELZER: ABOUT THE REGENERATION OF THE EUROPEAN TYPE OF CIVILIZATION
Europe is an omnipresent topic of public debate, but the discussion runs wrong due to two main errors: 1. Today, Europe and the European Union would mean one and the same thing, called “European project”. This misconception relies on error 2. The scientific reconstruction of European history that has led to this state of affairs would be cum grano salis consensual. – The intention of the following text is to give some hints to falsify these presuppositions. The key argument is the disclosure of the “half empiricism” which is the congenital defect of occidental philosophy and science, mainly interested in liberating cognition from troubling influences and subjective feelings. With reference to the New Phenomenology founded by Hermann Schmitz (2009, 2011), the plan to regenerate Europe will have to begin with telling, suggestive impressions of the pre-reflexive corporeal experience, paradoxically telling more than one can say. It is a sensitivity for specific situations which have made the European type of civilization. The text explains that learning an unknown European language on the base of encorporation (Einleibung) during the “European semester” will help to regenerate this European sensitivity. To be successful, the new programme will be independent from the main antagonists: globalist interests, associated political forces and anti-European ideologies. In the focus of renewal are the smaller European countries, their languages and their contribution to the European style of civilization, hidden by the “big five” Germany, UK, France, Spain and Italy. In the phenomenologically informed perspective of the new MONTAIGNE student exchange programme, language acquisition will be understood as world acquisition. The “European semester” will be entirely dedicated to it.
- Keywords: European project, New Phenomenology, European semester, MONTAIGNE programme.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2019.31.02
3. Nataliya PIPCHENKO, Ievgeniia MAKARENKO and Mykola RYZHKOV: CURRENT CHALLENGES TO THE EU INTEGRATION POLICY
The article explores the conceptual and applied aspects of the EU integration policy in the system of strategic risks in the functioning of a supranational organization. The political, economic, security, energy, social and climate factors under analysis have been perceived as asymmetric in the European space because the European countries with diverse economic and political potential are unable to simultaneously engage in several advanced forms of integration as leading Member States. The emergence of new leaders, new risks for supranational governance, new approaches to defining the common foreign and security policy, in particular in the context of threats to regional peace and stability, have been identified as the key challenges. While the political, social and cultural dimensions of the European integration were considered more important than economic and security stability but the large-scale protests of the European community related to widespread disturbances of public safety and clashes with police, as well as the EU internal contradictions caused by the migration crisis have demonstrated that the EU Member States adopt different approaches to the solution of political, economic and social challenges of the integration policy. Based on the English-language news collection in ‘Media Cloud’ that includes 1630 international and national media resources, the transformation of the main narratives in 2014-2019 about the changing media attention to the challenges facing EU integration policy has been investigated. The pan-European and international context related to Brexit, the EU economic relations, the EU energy security, the regional instability, terrorist attacks in the European countries, cybersecurity and climate change are identified as important topics for media discussions.
- Keywords: political and economic challenges; security challenges; social challenges; media narratives; EU
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2019.31.03
4. Łukasz GOŁOTA: COMPARATIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT MODELS POLAND AND THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA
Poland and South Korea are widely recognised as successful examples of economic transformation. As a result of transformation, poor and economically underdeveloped states have managed to maintain extraordinary economic growth for a long time, significantly improving their citizens’ quality of life and joining the group of highly developed economies. The changes in both states were implemented on the basis of consistent references to two different paradigms of political economy: interventionist and liberal. This article presents theoretical models of growth, trying to match them with the practical dimension of the economic policy of the two states. The aim of the comparison is to define and present these models and their empirical verification. The period of the study in the case of South Korea comprises mainly the developments after 1961, and in the case of Poland, the reforms after 1989. The article consists of five sections dealing, respectively, with: theoretical aspects of development; justification of the comparison and the choices made by the states; transformation in South Korea; transformation in Poland; and finally, the summary.
- Keywords: Economic development models, growth, economic policy, economic transformation, Poland, South Korea.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2019.31.04
5. Iryna Ye. HALUSHCHAK, Iryna V. KOKHAN and Veronika S. DMYTROVSKA: FEATURES OF TAX POLICY IN UKRAINE IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION
The tax problem is one of the most complex and controversial in the world. The global practice of preserving the national economy shows that taxes are a major source of income to the budget and, therefore, funding for social and other national programs. The issue of Ukraine’s integration with the EU is very relevant and strategic today, in the context of which it is equally important to harmonise tax policy in Ukraine in line with EU norms. The main purpose of this article is to identify the features of tax policy making in Ukraine at the present stage and to adapt it to the process of European integration. The methodology of comparative analysis of the domestic tax system and its legal base in the countries of the European Union, as well as statistics on the tax base and its dynamics, was applied as the main approach. According to the results of the analysis, the main problems of functioning of tax systems of Ukraine and the EU countries have been identified, and the directions of their solution are suggested. Of further interest is such a line of research as a careful comparison of legislative support for tax policy in Ukraine and EU countries in the context of the implementation of the relevant norms in the domestic legislative framework.
- Keywords: taxes, tax policy, tax revenues, European Union, European integration, tax reform, fiscal reserves.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2019.31.05