2020 Issue No. 32 /April
Table of Contents
Since the Hooghe et al.(2002) publication about party positions on European integration, a comparison of radical right and radical left Eurosceptic parties is not often conducted. In literature about Euroscepticism, the image of the horseshoe or “inverted U” illustrates the orientation of Euroscepticism among parties without any deeper analysis. This paper tries fill the research gap by investigating whether these two Eurosceptic groups are distinct from each other in the area of EU trade policy by analyzing the debate surrounding the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). Using European Parliament debates about this EU-US partnership, the author tries give answers to the following questions: are Eurosceptic Members of the European Parliament (EMEPs) unified in their attitudes towards the TTIP? Between the far right and far left, which group of EMEPs was the trendsetter in the TTIP debate and which was the follower? To answer these questions, a constructivist approach is applied through discourse analysis. In the conclusion, the author concludes that far-left Eurosceptics are trendsetters on the issue, and those on the far-right are the followers. In the contrast to the far-left parties, being opposed to free trade with the US was not consistent with the ideological profile of the far-right parties. Therefore, the latter had to change their attitudes towards this treaty, following the rise of anti-TTIP attitudes in European society.
- Keywords: Euroscepticism, EU trade policy, TTIP, Far-left, Far-right, European Parliament.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.32.01
2. Yilmaz BAYAR and Murat GUNDUZ: THE IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT INFLOWS AND TRADE LIBERALIZATION ON HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT IN EU TRANSITION ECONOMIES
The globalization process gained acceleration as of 1980s and the barriers over flows of goods, services, and capital were reduced gradually by many countries. The aforementioned developments caused the considerable increases in foreign direct investments which became a significant external financing instrument especially for developing and emerging economies. In this context, the economic and non-economic effects of both foreign direct investments and trade liberalization have been researched extensively in the related literature. Given the related literature, the study explores the effect of foreign direct investment inflows and trade liberalization, two featured characteristics of the globalized world, on human capital development in 11 EU transition countries for the period of 1995-2018 through panel regression analysis. The regression analysis revealed that the impact of FDI inflows on human capital development was negative, while trade liberalization positively affected the human capital development. However, the magnitude of the both variables’ impact was found to be very weak.
- Keywords: Foreign direct investment inflows, trade liberalization, human capital development, panel regression analysis.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.32.02
This article analyses the transregional connections established by the Chilean Museum of Solidarity with socialist countries in Eastern Europe, and in particular with Romania. The analysis employs theories of the cultural Cold War, transnational and transregional studies, and especially the transnational and cross-regional analysis of cultural relations and artistic expressions, to discuss an example of “cultural transnationalism” (Dragostinova and Fidelis) of the Socialist Second World. Through a micro-history approach of the Global Cold War regarding the relationship between Romania and the Museum of Solidarity, this study aims to enhance the understanding of relations between the East and the South as being politicized by the highly bureaucratized cultural institutions. If cultural relations were important in establishing an autonomous policy such as that of Ceausescu, the type of artistic exchanges promoted were the expression of an aesthetic paradox, supporting a traditionalist, nationalist version of art.
- Keywords: Museum of Solidarity, Cold War, transregional, Chile, Romania.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.32.03
4. Elena V. KUCHERYAVAYA, Marta WITKOWSKA, Viktoriya KALINOVSKAYA, Pavel SELEZNEV, Svetlana ZUBANOVA and Aleksey FEDYAKIN: THE MULTICULTURALISM POLICY IN EUROPE
The aim of the article is the analysis of the genesis and contemporary content of the multiculturalism policy, implemented in European countries. The authors also consider the attitude of the European states to the increasing migrants flow. The attention is focused on the theoretical and practical differences in the understanding of the concept of “multiculturalism”. Additionally, the analysis of the successful experience in implementing the multiculturalism policy from several non-European continents is presented in this article, which can be also applied in Europe. The authors also analyse the strategic mistakes and the reasons why the policy of multiculturalism is considered to be not effective in Europe today. The article is based on the case study, explicit-diagnostic, descriptive and evaluationary approaches, as well as an analysis of the works of various authors, who have been studying ethno-cultural diversity and multicultural societies for a long time, and on the critical discourse analysis of the recent publications in the media, related to the multiculturalism policy in Europe.
- Keywords: multiculturalism, migration, multiculturalism policy in Europe, European lifestyle.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.32.04
5. Vadym ZHELTOVSKYY: EUROPEAN INTEGRATION PROCESSES IN POST-EUROMAIDAN UKRAINE: IN SEARCH FOR SCENARIOS
The article makes an attempt to explain key developments of the European integration processes in the aftermath of Euromaidan events in Ukraine. The analysis covers brief summary of the above mentioned processes in years 1994-2004 and puts major emphasis on the directions and peculiarities of the EU-Ukraine cooperation concerning deliberation and introduction of democratic reforms as well as the main impediments to their successful implementation. The methodology of the research is predominantly based on the method of scenarios aiming to give arguments in favor and against the most probable directions of further relations between Ukraine and the EU. As a matter of fact, on the grounds of the conducted study of political and social situation in Ukraine as well as the policies and position of the European Union and Russian Federation toward the European integration of Ukraine, three scenarios are proposed with a view to evaluating the potential directions of Ukraine’s development: 1) successful European integration and a full EU membership; 2) successful European integration without the perspective of a full EU membership; 3) the change of Ukraine’s pro-European course. Finally, the conclusive remarks summarize of the most significant developments in reference to the systemic reforms launched in 2014 and a set of recommendations regarding the perspective steps that would bring Ukraine closer to the European Union.
- Keywords: European integration, Europeanization, Association Agreement, anti-corruption reforms.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.32.05
6. Vephkhvia GRIGALASHVILI: AN AMBIGUOUS PHENOMENON OF HYBRID WARFARE. THEORY AND POLICY PRACTICE OF GEORGIA
Despite the growing actuality of hybrid warfare, modern democratic political institutions have not yet been able to formulate a generally accepted and coherent view of hybrid warfare, nor formulate one consolidated definition for this new form of warfare. Considering the fact that for modern revisionist forces, hybrid warfare is a tool for changing the existing world order and achieving their political goals, it is worth noting that international law has not yet defined the legal status of “hybrid warfare”. Therefore, there is a grey area which allows revisionist forces free rein, according to the current state of affairs, because they are not bound by appropriate legal obligations. In view of the above, understanding the political-strategic characteristics and concepts of hybrid warfare are essential for developing hybrid defence strategies and other mechanisms to protect against hybrid threats. This is also critical in terms of maintaining the world order, in a sustainable way, and for developing effective national security policies. Given the current state of affairs, this article analyses the key characteristics and political strategies related to the phenomenon of hybrid warfare, considers the approaches taken by individual states (including Georgia) and reflects upon scientific opinion. Then, based on the induction method and conceptual analysis, the latter part of this article proposes a political and strategic conceptual framework of hybrid warfare, in which the tools/methods and means of conducting hybrid warfare are explored, along with the groupings, objectives and actors involved in hybrid warfare.
- Keywords: Hybrid Warfare Concept, Russian Hybrid Warfare Strategy, Georgian Hybrid Defence Policy.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.32.06
7. Paweł STAWARZ: ARMENIA AND AZERBAIJAN IN THE ENP – MISSED OPPORTUNITIES?
This article is devoted to the relations of the European Union with Armenia and Azerbaijan based on the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Eastern Partnership. Due to strategic location between Europe, the Middle East, as well as Central Asia the above mentioned instruments are very important for the European Union and its Member States, as well as Armenia and Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan’s rich resources of crude oil and natural gas combined with the dominant role of the Russian Federation in the region make these two countries geopolitically important. In the context of the diversification of fuels in the EU energy sector this situation poses challenges for Brussels. Russia is the main supplier for many EU countries (the construction of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline shows that important EU members want to strengthen the observed realities, as does the Russian Federation) and the European diversification efforts are a threat to a stabilization of the energy dialogue with Moscow. The growing importance of the discussed countries of the South Caucasus has not caused significant interest among scholars in this issue. This is probably due to little interest in Armenia and Azerbaijan so far of major actors in the international political scene – with Russia as an exception. This text is an attempt to at least partially fill this gap.
- Keywords: European Union, Armenia, Azerbaijan, European Neighborhood Policy, Eastern Partnership, energy resources.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.32.07