2020 Issue No. 34 /December
Table of Contents
The aim of this article is to highlight the essence, the meaning and the role of EU civilian missions and military operations conducted under the umbrella of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). The first two parts constitute an introduction which presents the institutional framework, scope and mandate of EU missions/operations as well as their nature. The subsequent parts constitute an attempt to answer the question of what distinguishes EU missions/operations and what their specificity is. In this context, the CSDP crisis management model is presented along with the significance of operations in building the EU’s international identity and in strengthening the political dimension of European integration, especially in relation to security and defence policy. The main weaknesses and shortcomings of CSDP missions/operations have also been characterized. Thusly, eleven such weaknesses have been identified which, to a large extent, determine the shape, scope and nature of CSDP missions and operations carried out by the European Union.
- Keywords: European Union, Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), EU missions/operations, civilian and military activities under the CSDP, crisis management.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.34.01
The impact of European economic policy is felt in all areas of the existence of individual Member States. Its economic area is not an exception. In the context of entrepreneurship, the impact of European economic policy has also been reflected in the introduction of new legal forms of entrepreneurship. The primary concern is a European society and a European cooperative whose legislation has become part of the national legal order under European Union regulations. This article focuses on examining these legal forms of entrepreneurship. The main objective of the article is to comprehensively analyse the legislative aspects of European society and the European cooperative and to examine their legal regulation and status in the legal system of the Slovak Republic, especially using critical analysis and other scientific methods, we are looking for answers to selected application problems from practice. As part of the investigation we also use scientific and doctrinal interpretation, Slovak and foreign professional literature and case law Comprehensive legal examination of European society and European cooperative in the Slovak Republic is the main objective of this contribution, which belongs to the field of commercial law with certain overlaps into economics and entrepreneurship.
- Keywords:: European Policy, European Cooperative Society, European Society, Entrepreneurship in the European Union.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.34.02
3. Łukasz ZAMĘCKI and Viktor GLIED: ARTICLE 7 PROCESS AND DEMOCRATIC BACKSLIDING OF HUNGARY AND POLAND. DEMOCRACY AND THE RULE OF LAW
This paper examines developments in Poland following the 2015 elections and in Hungary since 2010, which included the gradual destruction of democratic institutions, challenges to the rule of law, as well as to the system of checks and balances. The authors consider the Ziblatt–Levitsky model (2018) as a meaningful framework for the analysis of the way in which the power structure was reshaped and have based their research on the classification set out in this model. Our objective is to present the political changes that took place in the two Central-Eastern-European countries during the last decade that resulted in the process under Article 7 being used for the first time in the history of the EU. The paper conclusion is that the path of de-democratization of Hungary and Poland is seen from the perspective of the EU and Council of Europe, as similar one. In actions taken toward both countries, the EU concerns mostly the principle of the rule of law.
- Keywords: liberal democracy, democratic backsliding, Article 7, European Union.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.34.03
The Black Sea region has strategic geopolitical importance where the routes of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia, and the Middle East intersect. Ensuring stability and security in the Black Sea area is essential for emerging new security architecture. In search of balance, the challenges are met by the Three Seas Initiative (3SI) and the deepening of strategic relations with the United Arab Emirates. The UAE, anchored in the Euro-Atlantic partnership and with extensive influence, emerges as an interesting strategic partner. When analysing the Three Seas Initiative, it should be noted that the United States of America joined the implementation of 3SI, seeing it as an opportunity to pursue American interests in LNG markets, and in a broader geopolitical dimension, combining this initiative with projects in the Middle East. This research paper is the first to analyse the foreign and security policy of the two Black Sea countries, Bulgaria, and Romania that participate in the Three Seas Initiative, from the geostrategic perspective and relations with the United Arab Emirates. The research work is based on empirical research, and the results of which are largely derived from 10 years of direct observation, as well as the participation of the author of the article in many initiatives related to cooperation between all 3SI countries with the United Arab Emirates, among others as an Ambassador, Senior Advisor at Dubai Expo 2020.
- Keywords: Black Sea, United Arab Emirates, Three Seas Initiative, 3SI, Bulgaria, Romania.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.34.04
5. Romana Emilia CRAMARENCO: ON MIGRANTS AND COVID-19 PANDEMIC – AN ANALYSIS
In the present context of COVID 19 pandemic, the interlinkages between migration and health are once again on the international agenda. The relationship between migration and health is multifaceted and varies across migrant groups or individuals within groups. Sometimes, migration is driven by health issues, and in other cases the migration journey may worsen the health condition of the migrants and refugees, namely those migrating out of necessity. In Europe, the public health policies insufficiently address the health problems of the migrants, especially for displaced persons and irregular migrants. The impact of lockdowns and various socio-economic restrictions on the most vulnerable labour force are being investigated nowadays, and the SDG principle “no one is left behind” is seriously challenged. The article aims to reveal several traits of the present health crisis and its impact on migrants and refugees, the vulnerabilities exacerbated by the crisis, and to identify potential measures to be taken by host countries in order to reduce the negative impact.
- Keywords: migration, migration–health nexus, COVID 19 pandemic, migrants’ vulnerabilities.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.34.05
6. Ladislav MURA, Tibor ZSIGMOND, Adam KOVÁCS and Éva BALOGHOVÁ: UNEMPLOYMENT AND GDP RELATIONSHIP ANALYSIS IN THE VISEGRAD FOUR COUNTRIES
Unemployment rate is one of the most important macroeconomic indicators. The change of the unemployment rate is highly correlated with the phase of the economic cycle. The economic growth has positive impact on employment issues, while negative growth will result in increasing unemployment. In terms of the future economic outlook, we find it important to analyse the development of the unemployment rate. This study is addressing the analysis of unemployment rate in the V4 countries of the Central European region. It is focusing on examining the relationship between the economic cycle and the long-term unemployment rate in the region. We targeted to examine the productive age group of the population (20-64 years). This group has the greatest influence on development of the employment trends. We applied the method of regression analysis and descriptive statistics. We used Eurostat as a data source. Our research has shown that there is no close relationship between the real GDP and the unemployment rate.
- Keywords: unemployment rate, unemployment trends, labour market trends, employee, Visegrad Four countries.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.34.06
The article uses the discourse analysis to recreate the images of the European Union unfolded from the debate held in the Lower Chamber of the Polish Parliament on 16th September 2015 on the information concerning the migration crisis in Europe and its repercussions for Poland, as presented by the Prime Minister. In the analysis the author adopted some methodological assumptions allowing him to capture the relationship between discourse and political practice. The author also emphasizes the significance of contextual framework as a requirement for reconstructing the discourse. The analysis points out the relative stability of divisions within the Polish integration discourse. The above-mentioned dichotomy was recreated using the following categories: (1) modified sovereignty and (2) self-determination (independence in decision-making). The article also stresses the continuation of this division within the analyzed debate, in which the following collective categories were distinguished: 1) the EU as a solidarity community and 2) the EU as the area of antagonized national interests.
- Keywords: Poland, the European Union, parliamentary discourse, migration crisis, solidarity, community, rivalry, particularism.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.34.07
8. Monica Ioana BURCĂ-VOICU and Mihaela Adriana OPRESCU: A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE ENLARGEMENT PROCESS FOR THE WESTERN BALKANS STATES. SYNTHETIC EVALUATION OF THE INTEGRATION PATH WITHIN THE COMPETITIVENESS POLICY
In the process of negotiations with the EU candidate countries, one of the acquis chapters related to the sectoral issues, is the competitiveness policy on the closure of which depends to a large extent the completion of negotiations. The Western Balkans region is at the same time a strategic priority for the European Union as well as a real challenge in terms of economic convergence due to the criteria that continue to lag behind the development and compliance with the aquis communautaire compared to the already member states. The aim of the present research is to present the EU legal framework related to the competitiveness sector trying to capture the challenges met on the path to integration in this regard, taking also into account the national economic and legal context of the Western Balkans countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia). The present analysis starts methodologically with a brief presentation of the general legislative framework with reference to the competing elements to be fulfilled in the enlargement process of the European Union and contextualized upon the economic realities of the Western Balkans states trying to capture at the same time the fulfilment level of the main criteria to be met in accordance with a free market economy and a strong competitive environment.
- Keywords: Western Balkans countries, EU Single Market, economic integration, competitiveness.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.34.08
9. Beáta Sz.G. PATÓ, Ágnes CSISZÁRIK-KOCSIR, Imre VARGA, Márk, HERCZEG, Ákos DOMINEK, Bálint PATÓ and Fanni KISS: SHORT SUPPLY CHAINS FROM AN INTERMEDIARY’S POINT OF VIEW
In our increasingly globalized world, access to the right products and food is a central issue for all consumers. An alternative form of supply are local products, which can meet all or part of consumers’ needs. These local products are local specialties and non-mass products, which are tied to local features, technologies, culture, and identity. Supply chains can also help to improve the viability and sustainability of producers. In order for these short supply chains to work well, there is a need for continuous feedback and evaluation, therefore supplier evaluation forms could act as the starting point of these chains. The supplier evaluation form can serve to support and develop these supply chains at the local level. The aim of this study is to present a short supply chain from an intermediary’s point of view based on a case study. This method enables to gain a broader insight into the operation of local food chains. As the case study reveals, it is recommended for the members of these chains to apply supplier evaluation forms in order to maintain a better relationship between the partners. According to the experiences and conclusions a supplier evaluation system is defined by the authors.
- Keywords: local product, supplier evaluation, short supply chain, modelling.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.34.09
10. Kinga WOJTAS and Katarzyna WALECKA: THE PANDEMIC OF COVID-19 – A CATALYST FOR CHANGES IN THE COUNTRIES OF EAST CENTRAL EUROPE
The pandemic of Covid-19 has been an unprecedented challenge to the majority of countries in the world. This article examines whether COVID-19 has strengthened or weakened the previously chosen path of development in four countries in Central and Eastern Europe – Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Ukraine, and Moldova. The selected countries represent different transformation paths taken after the collapse of communism and allow for showing various reactions of governments to the Covid- 19 crisis. Therefore, we analyze the pandemic’s effect on three major components of the developmental process – political, social, and economic and check whether COVID-19 has caused any changes in these three spheres. Also, we scrutinized the scope of the measures implemented by governments and their impact on their development paths. We found that while in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the liberal democracy model has not been questioned, in Hungary, the earlier tendencies of backsliding from democracy have deepened. In the countries which are in the process of democracy-building – Moldova and Ukraine – the pandemic has not significantly affected the intensity of violating its principles, as they are still weakly established. Thus, the analysis of the first wave of the Covid -19 pandemic showed that it was not a catalyst for the change but tended to deepen and strengthen trends that existed before.
- Keywords: Covid-19, East Central Europe, development path, trust in government, democracy.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.34.10