2021 Issue No. 37 /December
Table of Contents
1. Agnieszka ORZELSKA-STACZEK and Piotr BAJDA: SECURITY ASPECTS OF REGIONAL COOPERATION IN CENTRAL EUROPE: VISEGRÁD GROUP, BUCHAREST NINE, AND THE THREE SEAS INITIATIVE
Abstract: This article investigates the role of security in the development of regional cooperation in Central Europe. The main research question concerns the correlation between the security environment and the development of regional cooperation. We argue that the numerous forms of regional cooperation were created to consolidate states in narrow or wider constellations, so as to better protect their security interests. Regional cooperation has a significant, albeit complementary, place in the European security architecture, which is based on the transatlantic community. Empirically, the paper delves into the Visegrád Group (V4), the Three Seas Initiative (3SI) and the Bucharest Nine (Bucharest format, B9). Its theoretical and methodological approach is based on the transition paradigm, which in its security dimension still sets the framework for research on post-communist countries and gives a good insight into the development of regional cooperation in Central Europe. We also refer to the cooperation patterns of small states, taking into consideration the geopolitical restraints caused by their location between great powers. Our research is predominantly based on realist theory. Therefore, we emphasize the significance of threats, state interests, and changes in the international order. We use qualitative research methods, in particular content analysis of documents and the results of a project based on data collection techniques through interviews with diplomats from 3SI states.
- Keywords: Security, Regional cooperation, Central-Eastern Europe, Three Seas Initiative, Bucharest Nine, Visegrád Group, New regionalism, Transition paradigm, Transformation.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2021.37.01
2. Krzysztof JASIECKI: POLITICAL CHANGES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBAL REGRESSION OF DEMOCRACY
Abstract: The article describes political changes in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe that are members of the European Union against the background of the global condition of democracy. The frame of reference are selected results of the Economist Democracy Index 2020 report examining the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on political changes in the world, considering some conclusions from the previous publications of the ranking. The theoretical premises and methodology of the Democracy Index are presented, including the typology of political systems as a tool for classifying the countries covered by the study into one of the four types of the systems compared: full democracy, flawed democracy, hybrid regime and authoritarian regime. The strengths and weaknesses of the Democracy Index have characterized as well as the symptoms of the global decline of democracy. Changes in the values of the Index indicators in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe between 2006 and 2020 are analysed. The summary shows the ambivalence of the directions of political changes in the
- Keywords: SGlobal crisis of democracy, European Union countries, Political changes in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, Strengths and weaknesses of the Economist Democracy Index 2020.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2021.37.02
3. Zoltan GRUNHUT: EUROPEANNESS AND LATE MODERNITY REVISITING THE CONCEPT OF COSMOPOLITAN EUROPE
Abstract: The current paper revisits the concept of cosmopolitan Europe developed by Ulrich Beck and Edgar Grande 15 years ago. The objective of this review is to shed light on the increasing actuality of the authors’ argument in our social-political constellation suggests that Europe is in desperate need of progressive reinvention. The paper addresses the concept of cosmopolitan Europe in the social theoretical framework of Late Modernity. This lens helps to better understand the future scenarios ahead of the European Union as well as the interlinked options for individual and institutional responses could be taken adequately in this era of global-local changes.
- Keywords: Europe, Cosmopolitanism, Europeanness, Late Modernity.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2021.37.03
4. Roman LACKO, Zuzana HAJDUOVÁ, František SEBESTYÉN and Pavol ANDREJOVSKÝ: CHANGES OF PRODUCTIVITY IN THE TOURISM SECTOR OF THE EU BEFORE THE PANDEMIC- IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICIES AFTER COVID-19
Abstract: The constraints caused by the fight against COVID-19 have hit the tourism sector the hardest of all. The tourism industry’s backbone services, such as accommodation and catering, but also the services partially related to transport, arts and entertainment have declined by tens of percent year-on-year. The business environment plays an important role in achieving economic growth. Tourism is also a key sector contributing to economic growth. We can conclude that tourism is one of the worst affected areas. Under various restrictive measures introduced by governments and national authorities, the number of foreign and domestic tourists has fallen. Using descriptive and sampling statistical methods, we will assess the significance of pandemic-related changes at EU country level. Based on these findings and an evaluation of measures against the spread of the coronavirus, we apply regression modelling to identify the impact of these decisions on the performance of tourism indicators. We decided to quantify the efficiency of investments and subsidies to rescue and revitalize tourism entities. Based on the results, we reached conclusions that contribute to the prosperity of tourism in the European countries. EU countries should invest primarily in infrastructure. Country leaders should promote the idea of sustainable ‘green’ tourism on the basis of improving the conditions for doing business in this area.
- Keywords: Productivity, tourism, Malmquist index, the European Union.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2021.37.04
5. Peter ADAMIŠIN, Ivana BUTORACOVÁ ŠINDLERYOVÁ and Andrea ČAJKOVÁ: CORONAVIRUS VS. REAL CAUSE OF THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC CRISIS – COMPARING SLOVAK AND GERMAN NATIONAL MODEL EXAMPLE
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to present possible causes of the economic crisis in most European countries considering not only the coronavirus, but mainly the development of economic indicators such as wages and labour productivity in the period of 2000-2019. The authors try to prove, that the economic crisis was clearly predictable in the Slovak Republic (and many other European countries) despite the whole coronavirus issue, and they identify the spectrum of the correlation of these developmental features and predictors, but also point out that the interconnection of the analysed issues cannot always represent direct dependence on the long-term sustainable growth of the economy. The authors focus on the question of the possible sustainability of wage development in the Slovak Republic based on the analysis of the relevant determinants as well as in comparison with the often discussed German European example. Comparing the development level and wages structure in the period before and after the national accession into the EMU, the authors try to warn about the resulting problem of the country’s
economy in connection with the current unsustainability of the growth of wages and labour productivity, which in final was not caused, just accelerated by both government and economic limitations related to coronavirus issue.
- Keywords: Wages, analysis, Labour productivity, Comparison, Progress, Sustainability, Pandemic crisis.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2021.37.05
6. Andrzej JACUCH: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CYBERSECURITY STRATEGIES EUROPEAN UNION STRATEGY AND POLICIES. POLISH AND SELECTED COUNTRIES STRATEGIES
Abstract: The Western democracies: the United Kingdom, the United States, the European Union countries are targeted by hybrid threats predominantly on two fronts – cyberspace and information. This article focuses on cybersecurity. The rapid development of ICT technologies and cyberspace have had a tremendous impact on societies and more general on the international security environment. The EU and its members efficient functioning depends on a coherent and effective system to counter cyber threats at strategic, legal and institutional levels. The objective of this paper is to identify, analyse and assess the adequacy of the Polish National Cyber Security Strategy (Polish NCSS), including the implementation of EU’s regulations. The article presents description and analysis of the the EU responses to cyber threats; and the Polish strategy. For comparison, strategic documents of the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Lithuania and Estonia are analysed. It presents the findings of a comparative analysis of the Polish strategy with the five national strategies and present recommendations to enhance cybersecurity.
- Keywords: Cyberspace, Cyber security, National Cyber Security Strategy, EU Cyber Security strategy and policies.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2021.37.06
7. Israel BARRUTIA BARRETO, Hernán LARICO VERA,David Julio Martel ZEVALLOS and Samuel Acevedo TORRES: ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL REFLECTION ON THE BREXIT EFFECT EUROPE –PERU RELATIONSHIP
Abstract: The key event that is expected to mark the beginning of the year 2021, will be the definitive transition out of the United Kingdom from the European Union, Brexit. Inquiring the key elements for a political and economic reflection, explained in terms of predictive mathematical models ARIMA, Holt-Winters and Lotka-Volterra, based on the historical variability of GDP in both nations from the Third Quarter of 2020 to the Third Quarter of year 2023. We show that the Republic of Peru will increase the variability in terms of gross domestic product GDP in relation to Brexit, with an exponential growth of 8,99% in the study period; going from US $ 195868,147 to US $ 213478,795. In conclusion, Brexit is a special regime with an emphasis on transaction. In conclusion, Brexit is a special regime with an emphasis on transaction costs, measured as the GDP response of cross-border trade companies in the United Kingdom and especially in relation to Peru.
- Keywords: Model, Prediction, Gross domestic product, Transition, Variability.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2021.37.07
8. Ronen SHAY: CONSTRUCTING INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS BETWEENISRAEL AND JORDAN: THE CASE OF THE ‘EILAT PROJECT’
Abstract: Contrary to the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty, the treaty between Israel and Jordan reflects aspects of normalization. Mechanisms for neighborly relations were established, and foundations for economic cooperation in the tourism industry were created. A new form of a friendly and robust relationship was established in 2014 with the Eilat project’s implementation, which allowed 2000 Jordanian citizens to work in the hospitality industry in Eilat, Israel. Security issues and fear of terror attacks, bureaucracy, nationality, and citizenship are still part of this sensitive endeavor; however, it seems that the two countries are headed towards a warmer peace.
- Keywords: Cold/warmPeace, Hospitality, Nationality, Security and Bureaucracy, The Eilat Project.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2021.37.08