2022 Issue No. 38 /April
1. Rafał ULATOWSKI: SECURITY ASPECTS OF REGIONAL COOPERAGEOECONOMIC BALANCING, GEOECONOMIC BANDWAGONING OR GEOECONOMIC HEDGING? GEOECONOMIC BALANCING, GEOECONOMIC BANDWAGONING OR GEOECONOMIC GERMAN-CHINESE RELATIONS 2008-2020
Abstract: Despite the rising geoeconomic competition between the USA and China, no suggestions are offered in the contemporary literature as to what geoeconomic strategy middle powers can use towards the great powers in the face of the currently emerging bipolar world structure. In this paper, three ideal-typical models of geoeconomic strategies for middle powers are developed with the help of terminology borrowed from strategic studies: the concepts of balancing, bandwagoning and hedging lead to the concepts of geoeconomic balancing, geoeconomic bandwagoning and geoeconomic hedging. Further, the behaviour of Germany towards China is tested, and it is argued that Germany has chosen geoeconomic hedging as its strategy towards China. By simultaneously promoting and restricting economic relations with China, Germany seeks to protect its commercial interests in China and at the same time strengthen its partnership with the USA and EU members to avoid falling into the Chinese sphere of influence.
- Keywords: Geoeconomics, Germany, China, Geoeconomic balancing, Geoeconomic bandwagoning, Geoeconomic hedging.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2022.38.01
2. Neriman HOCAOĞLU BAHADIR: THE ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION’S LANGUAGE POLICY IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF EUROPEAN IDENTITY
Abstract: European identity is an identity of the European Union (EU) and it has been constructed again and again since it was introduced. It is a socially constructed identity, which is not defined, not fixed, not finished but dynamic. The language policy of the EU also has an effect in this construction process, as the EU is a multilingual Union, which has 24 official languages. This policy has been developed for many years just like the European identity. The purpose of this research is to examine the role of EU’s language policy in constructing the European identity. Both the European identity and the EU’s language policy serve social cohesion and integration. They are in relation with one another, and the language policy has an effect on the construction of European identity as it is socially constructed through the interactions of individuals as agents equipped with language resources and with the developments sustained by the EU institutions.
- Keywords: European identity, Language policy, Multilingualism, Interaction
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2022.38.02
Abstract: The Committee of the Regions was established to reinforce the democratic legitimacy of the European Union. All of the members and alternates of the Committee have to hold the democratic mandate at the regional or local level. At first sight, these two factors may lead to the conclusion that the Committee of the Regions offers the citizens the opportunity to be a part of the European decision-making process. That should specifically include the involvement of the citizens and taking their opinions into account during the later stages of the process. Such a situation would also lead to the reduction of the democratic deficit in the European Union. However, a closer look might prove otherwise. The article’s aim is to evaluate if the Committee of the Regions does fulfil its mission. The concepts that serve as the theoretical foundation for the examination are participatory democracy, the input and output types of legitimacy as well as the democratic deficit. The main findings are based on the Author’s own empirical research, conducted among the Polish members of the Committee of the Regions. The analysis contains also the explanation for current state of affairs as well as points out at the possible scenarios for the Committee’s future.
- Keywords: Committee of the Regions, European Union, Citizens’ involvement, Democratic deficit, Participatory democracy.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2022.38.03
Abstract: The constraints caused by the fight against COVID-19 have hit the tourism sector the hardest of all. The tourism industry’s backbone services, such as accommodation and catering, but also the services partially related to transport, arts and entertainment have declined by tens of percent year-on-year. The business environment plays an important role in achieving economic growth. Tourism is also a key sector contributing to economic growth. We can conclude that tourism is one of the worst affected areas. Under various restrictive measures introduced by governments and national authorities, the number of foreign and domestic tourists has fallen. Using descriptive and sampling statistical methods, we will assess the significance of pandemic-related changes at EU country level. Based on these findings and an evaluation of measures against the spread of the coronavirus, we apply regression modelling to identify the impact of these decisions on the performance of tourism indicators. We decided to quantify the efficiency of investments and subsidies to rescue and revitalize tourism entities. Based on the results, we reached conclusions that contribute to the prosperity of tourism in the European countries. EU countries should invest primarily in infrastructure. Country leaders should promote the idea of sustainable ‘green’ tourism on the basis of improving the conditions for doing business in this area.
- Keywords: PESCO projects, NATO, Path dependency, Autonomy
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2022.38.04
Abstract: The main objective of the article is to present the development and the current situation with regard to political, legal and organizational aspects of cybersecurity in the European Union. The European Communities entered the information society era later than the US and Japan did. Following the Lisbon Strategy, however, the European Union has been developing it dynamically, and one of the main elements of these activities is cybersecurity. It has been increasingly a crucial point of safety of the whole virtual environment since the rising
and such rapid development of information and communications technologies. The article presents a short history of the development of the information, digital and gigabit society in the European Union according to its subsequent long-term strategies, emphasising on the analysis of the development of European Union activities as regards cybersecurity in the political, legislative and organisational aspects. Some Polish threads are included, too. The paper is a result of a longstanding observation by the Author of the development of the information society
in the European Union, is based on the EU’s official documents, national and international reports, visits, expert studies, and literature on the subject. The study shows that the activities implemented by the European Union are very often of a pioneering character on a world scale, apply system solutions, and are characterised by the logic of the sequence of endeavours made to ensure a high level of cybersecurity in its territory. These seem to be effective as shown by the high position of the European continent in cybersecurity rankings in the world.
- Keywords: Cybersecurity, European Union’s activity and legislation on cybersecurity, European Union, Poland.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2022.38.05
6. Paulo Vitorino FONTES: FROM PORTUGUESE SOCIAL POLICY TO THE SOCIAL EMPLOYMENT MARKET IN THE AUTONOMOUS REGION OF THE AZORES
Abstract: This work aims to present, in a concise and systematised way, through bibliographic research, an analysis of the implementation of the public policy, the Social Labour Market in the Autonomous Region of the Azores. Contextualising this policy in the wider framework of social policies implemented in Portugal, considering that public policies are responses of the public authorities to social problems, presenting themselves as strategies that institutionalise a set of systematic actions to achieve certain goals considered to be of public interest. The
formulation and implementation of public policies depend on and are the result of the interaction of numerous logics of actors, be they individual or collective, be they public or private. In this sense, the present work develops a theoretical conception of policy analysis, as a study methodology, comprising the categories: actors, content, context and process, where in the latter, the processes of agenda building, policy formulation and implementation are specified. Finally, contributions will be made to the review of this public policy.
- Keywords: Social employment market, Public policy, Social exclusion, Azores.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2022.38.06
Abstract: School leadership plays an essential part in school the performance and productivity. The leadership style of a school leader is the one that makes the difference in the success of a school as a result of the encouragement, motivation and care shown by all acting actors of school, and especially by teachers. This paper intends to examine leadership styles displayed by public high school principals in Albania and highlight negative aspects of leadership styles practiced by school leaders. For the fulfilment of this work, the standardized questionnaire Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Form 6-S (Bass & Avolio, 1992) was used to highlight the leadership styles, implemented to a sample of 78 public school principals of the upper middle system in the country. The questionnaire was translated into Albanian and adapted from the original considering also the specific Albanian culture. The results of this research demonstrate that school leaders show confusion about the use of their leadership style, stating that they often use all the three leadership styles from the most positive to the negative one as described in the Model of transformational leadership
- Keywords: Leadership style, public high schools, transformational leadership, education style.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2022.38.07