2023 Issue No. 41 /April
Abstract: This article addresses the issue of the departure of the popular class from Polish social democracy and the simultaneous takeover by the right-wing populist. Analyzing the electoral results of the SLD and the PiS after 2005, we can see this phenomenon both in the context of electoral geography and in-depth opinion polls. The article also analyzes the apparent dichotomy between contemporary center-left voters and the ruling party in Poland in the dimension of attitudes to socio-economic and cultural issues, which may indicate a permanent loss of trust for the Polish center-left among representatives of the peasant and working class.
- Keywords: social democracy, popular class, populism, PiS, SLD.
Abstract: After the fall of the communist regimes, the former Eastern bloc countries stated that they wanted to join the European Community. However, the legacy of Soviet socio-economic systems and structures made it difficult for the countries of Eastern Europe to integrate faster into the Community. Nevertheless, the accession of the former communist states, in the opinion of former European Commissioner for Enlargement Olli Rehn, has served as an anchor for stability and democracy and an engine of personal freedom and economic dynamism in Europe. The enlargement process has made a positive contribution to narrowing the gap between East and West in terms of democracy, although progress among post-communist countries is still lower than in “Western European” states. In the context of the invasion of Ukraine by the Russian troops and the global crisis that arose from this event, the integration of Ukraine into the European Union seems more palpable than ever. This paper tries to explain the relationship between the EU and Ukraine since the latter managed to gain its independence from Russia and became part of the Eastern Partnership and to come up with a possible scenario of how the enlargement process will take place from here onwards for the countries that are on the Russian line of fire.
- Keywords: enlargement, integration, Ukraine, EU, Eastern Partnership.
Abstract: The development of the third sector in the countries of the Western Balkans, along with other sensitive issues, is at the centre of the analysis of the European integration processes of the region. Underlining the difficulties and limited contribution that civil society organizations, human rights associations, foundations, groups of expertise and social enterprises have for the advancing of democracy and the protection of citizens’ rights, international organizations, and European institutions view state cooperation with third sector as an issue, which needs to be addressed. The assessment of third sector organizations guiding principles of cooperation with the government institutions is carried out through this study in a regional context of the Western Balkans literature, third sector researches and paper reports. The research design and the construction of the variables guided the data collection process in a mixed methodology, where the main inquiring instruments are the questionnaires, focus groups and documents review. The regional context of the study included a specific analysis of Albania as a distinct case in which the functioning of third sector organizations is reported to be characterized by fragmentation, incoherence and struggle to exist. The conclusions of the research call for a renewed approach to the third sector with a particular emphasis on cooperation, support and sustain from government institutions, essential for renewing of interventions, projects and strategies that promote the rule of law, human rights and democracy.
- Keywords: third sector organizations, government institutions, guiding principles of cooperation.
Abstract: Sanctions have been a common tool used by states and international organizations to address political crises and human rights abuses. Zimbabwe, in particular, has been the subject of multiple sanctions regimes over the past two decades, aimed at pressuring its government to implement democratic reforms and improve human rights conditions. This article examines the effectiveness of past sanctions imposed on Zimbabwe from a multidimensional perspective. It highlights the limitations of the measures in achieving their intended political objectives and their unintended socio-economic consequences. The article also explores the inadequate coordination and enforcement of the sanctions and the failure to address the root causes of the crisis. Lastly, it discusses the negative impact of the sanctions on international relations. The analysis emphasizes the need for a coordinated and comprehensive approach to sanctions, addressing enforcement challenges and minimizing unintended negative consequences on the civilian population.
- Keywords: sanctions, democracy, effectiveness, human rights, political crisis.
5. Elena COSSU: THE ECONOMIC EFFECT OF POPULIST RHETORIC IN HUNGARY
Abstract: The Hungarian government has been widely associated with populist rhetoric in the literature. Its length and uninterrupted government since 2010 create a unique opportunity to study in detail the effects of this kind of rhetoric on its macroeconomic performance. How does Hungary perform under a government characterised by populist rhetoric? The study reveals that populism carries a significant economic cost, as GDP at equal purchasing power parity in 2020 is 10.04% lower than a plausible alternative scenario where the current government was not elected, after a period of 10 years. Lack of addressing some persisting problems of the country, such as lack of competitiveness and institutional decay, might be the underlying dynamic in creating lasting damage to the economy. In this paper, we explore this topic using three different, but complementary techniques used to assess causality: Difference-in-Differences, Synthetic Difference-in-Differences, and the Synthetic Control Method.
- Keywords: Hungary, synthetic control mechanism, populist rhetoric, economic growth.
6. Mirosław BANASIK: RUSSIAN FEDERATION’S THREATS TO THE BALTIC STATES
Abstract: This study focuses on the identification and explanation of the threats that the Russian Federation is creating against the Baltic States and their security implications. The research process established that the Russian Federation will destabilize the Baltic States and the regional security environment. Threats to the security of the Baltic States are a consequence of Russian strategic thinking on the offensive use of military force. Serious military challenges to the Baltic States are posed by the Russian Federation’s A2/AD multi-domain capabilities located in the Kaliningrad Oblast. The Russian Federation will also try to regain its influence by influencing below the measure short of war through political, economic and informational instruments.
- Keywords: threats, Russia Federation, armed forces, anti-access and area denial, measure short of war.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2023.41.06
7. Sylwester GARDOCKI: THE POSITION OF THE GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC TOWARDS THE WAR IN UKRAINE
Abstract: The aim of the article is to present the position of the Czech government and the society of this country towards the war in Ukraine. The text is an attempt to conduct a comparative analysis of the position of the Czech government and the part of society that has been opposing the government’s policy towards Ukraine for some time. The author presented the main consequences of the Czech government’s support for Ukraine, which are related to the post-pandemic crisis. These include, above all, problems with the supply of oil, natural gas and nuclear fuel for Czech nuclear power plants. Social problems include high inflation, rising interest rates and rising prices of basic commodities. In the summary, synthetic conclusions were drawn that confirm the discrepancies between the government’s policy and the position of that part of society.
- Keywords:government, society, Czech Republic, war in Ukraine.