2021 Issue No. 36 /September
Table of Contents
1. Paula WIŚNIEWSKA: THE SPITZENKANDIDATEN PROCESS – AN ATTEMPT TO EUROPEANISE ELECTIONS OR A TOOL TO INFLUENCE THE POLITICAL SYSTEM OF THE EUROPEAN UNION?
The aim of the article is to investigatehow a change in the election method of the President of the European Commission influenced of the political system of the European Union.Given the 2014 election results and the consequences of actions taken by the European Council in 2019, a question arises: what opportunities did the party families hope to be brought by The Spitzenkandiaten process? Did it strengthen cooperation among national parties belonging to the same European party during the campaign? How has the role of the European parties in the EU’s political system changed? What attitude to The Spitzenkandiaten process did individual European party families display? Has this process exacerbated turf wars between institutions? The purpose of the considerations made in the article is to verify the following hypotheses: H1: The Spitzenkandidaten process was an attempt of strong party families to gain influence in the EU executive. H2: Changes to the election method of the President of the European Commission introduced in 2014 led to the changes in the European parties functions within the EU’s political system. During the studies, the author used the method of in-depth interviews with individual representatives of the European People’s Party (EPP), the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (PES), and the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists (ACRE). Twenty-five interviews were conducted.
- Keywords: The Spitzenkandidaten, Party at the European level, President of the European Commission, European Parliament.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2021.36.01
2. Mykhailo ARYCH, Mariia LEVON, Halyna ARYCH and Yurii KULYNYCH: GENETIC TESTING IN INSURANCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR NON-EU INSURANCE MARKETS AS A PART OF THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION PROCESS
The purpose of the research study is to investigate the implications peculiarities of genetic testing in insurance for non-EU insurance markets as a part of the European integration process. The research model was developed by reviewing the previous studies in the area of genetic testing in insurance. Also, it was applying the correlation-regression analysis for defining the relationship between the causes of death and life insurance market competitiveness in the context of genetic testing in insurance implications for non-EU insurance markets as a part of the European integration process. The originality of the study is explained by the fact that it was described the genetic testing in insurance implications for non-EU insurance markets as a part of the European integration process; secondly, for the first time was conducted the correlation-regression analysis of the interconnection of causes of death and life insurance market competitiveness (case study of Ukrainian insurance market) in the context of genetic testing in insurance implications for non-EU insurance markets as a part of the European integration process). The scientific value of the research results also is explained vie the possibility of apply these findings for start to regulate the using of the genetic testing for risk assessment at the Ukrainian life insurance market and in others European countries that are not members of the EU and in EU countries that do not have any specific regulations in the area of applying genetic testing technologies for risk assessment in insurance.
- Keywords: insurance, genetic testing, genetic discrimination, European Union, integration, human rights protection.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2021.36.02
3. Roxana NISTOR: THE FUTURE OF EDUCATION IS ETHICAL. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ROLE OF ESP COURSES IN TRANSMITTING VALUES AND VIRTUES IN HEIs
Teaching has always been an ethical profession (Fisher, 2013; Campbell, 2000), and given the globalised world we are living in and the highly globalised labour market, instructors’ mission is no longer to prepare students for local jobs only, but for international jobs as well. Therefore, the subjects taught in Higher Education Institutions (HEI) should not only prepare students for using specialised knowledge (hard skills) in specific professional contexts, but they should also instil values and virtues – those soft skills that are also essential on the (international) labour market. Consequently, ethical communication (which heavily relies on values and virtues) has become a pillar (Monteiro, et al., 2018) in higher education studies, as it plays an outstanding role in the teaching process and in making sure that students – as future young graduates – have a strong work ethic. As such, our article focuses on how ESP courses taught at the Faculty of European Studies within Babeș-Bolyai University (Romania) can help students acquire not only the specialised vocabulary in English necessary for their field of study, but also the values and virtues required for an appropriate work ethic and the ability to put themselves in other people’s shoes when faced with an ethical dilemma to make sure that their solution maximizes the benefits of everyone involved.
- Keywords: soft skills, ethical communication, higher education, values & virtues, ESP.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2021.36.03
4. Tomáš PERÁČEK: IMPACT OF EUROPEAN LEGISLATION AND CASE-LAW ON ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS IN EU
The present scientific article examines the current state and issues of discrimination of selected groups of employees in employment relations. We deals with the current state of EU legislation and case law in the area of non-discrimination in employment relations. The main attention is given to the most important standardization activities of selected bodies of the European Union. We applied scientific methods of research such as analysis, synthesis, deduction, and comparison with regard to the nature of the topic studied. The scientific and doctrinal interpretation of the legislation in conjunction with the lessons learned from scientific literature and European case law has enabled us to find answers to the questions sought and the application problems of business practice. At the end of the article, we evaluate the results of our examination and propose ways of eliminating the identified causes of the lack of enforceability of the European Union’s anti-discrimination policy.
- Keywords: discrimination, employee, employer, European case law, European legislation.
- DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2021.36.04
5. Vadym ZHELTOVSKYY: IMPACT OF EASTERN PARTNERSHIP INITIATIVES ON EUROPEANIZATION PROCESSES IN UKRAINE
The article analyses the impact of Eastern Partnership initiatives on the Europeanization processes in Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the external Europeanization and the Europeanization ad personam in context of bilateral relations between the European Union and Ukrainian authorities. In order to follow the implications of the external Europeanization from the perspective of institutional dimension, the paper underlines the essence of Eastern Partnership instruments and initiatives aimed at the enhancement of cooperation among the partner states and at the engagement of civil society actors into the policy-making process. Furthermore, the accent is put on the issue of Eastern Partnership and European integration in political discourse of Ukrainian presidents. The comparative analysis of presidential rhetorical strategies gives opportunity to study the evolution of ad personam dimension of the Europeanization process in Ukraine and analyse the connection between rhetorical messages and future format of EU-Ukraine cooperation.
- Keywords: Eastern Partnership, Ukraine, external Europeanization, Europeanization ad personam.
6. Sylwia ZAWADZKA: EUROPEAN POLICY AS ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR OF GERMANY AND THE LEADERSHIP ROLE IN EU AS A RESULT OF POLITICAL ADAPTATION
The European Union has been gradually transforming in the process of progressive integration. An example of the serious implications of these changes were multiple crises that called the European order into question, thus posing a challenge to keep the essential structures of the EU within acceptable limits. The crises have forced EU decision-makers and Member State governments to adopt appropriate adaptive behavior by implementing correct response mechanisms. Adaptation to change has become the foundation of the European policies of the Member States. The author uses the theory of political adaptation to analyze German European policy. Initially, its main determinants were presented in the context of shaping adaptive behavior. Then, based on them, the model of adaptation to changes in the EU preferred by the German authorities was formulated. Using the comparative method and case study, the adaptation model in the situation of minimal changes in Germany and the EU compared with the form of adaptive behavior in it might be rapid changes caused by the Eurozone crisis and the refugee crisis. They were the main catalyst for the reformulation of Germany’s adaptive approach from ‘habitual’ to ‘deliberative’ or ‘convulsive’ which resulted in strengthening the role of the leader.
- Keywords:political adaptation, leadership, crisis, Germany.